Frequently asked questions about Brexit
In June 2016 the UK took the decision to leave the EU, but how is this likely to affect you and your business?
Since the referendum, our team at Grunberg has had a number of common queries regarding Brexit, including:
The UK’s departure from the European Union, following the referendum decision to leave, was due to take place at 11:00 pm UK time on Friday 29 March 2019.
Following Parliament’s decision not to back Prime Minister Theresa May’s withdrawal deal, Brexit will now be delayed.
Further debates in the House of Commons are ongoing. If the Prime Minister’s deal is rejected a third time, MPs will need to consider alternatives or face the ‘default position’ of no deal Brexit which could occur on Friday 12 April.
If MPs agree the Prime Minister’s deal, the country could potentially leave the EU on Wednesday 22 May, although the possibility of a further extension, a no deal Brexit, a further referendum, General Election and even a move to revoke Article 50 – effectively cancelling Brexit – have all been put forward as possible alternative scenarios.
It is not yet fully clear whether the UK will remain in the single market. However, the current UK government has articulated that it wishes to leave the single market and will rely instead upon a bespoke trade deal with the EU, which is yet to be negotiated. To assist businesses there may be a period of transition after Brexit to help them adjust.
At present, the only way to be in the single market is to be part of the European Economic Area (EEA), either as a member of the EU or a member of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA).
However, the UK may decide to choose to trade by the rules stipulated by the World Trade Organisation (WTO). This would avoid the complexity of creating a new free-trade agreement, but would also remove any favourable relationships Britain has with the EU or any other trading bloc.
The economic impact of Brexit is difficult to accurately assess. However, the strong consensus amongst the majority of economists and research institutes suggests that Brexit will negatively impact the British economy, at least in the short-term.
A lot still remains unclear about the future of UK trade and much will rely upon the government’s ability to maintain a relationship with the Single Market, either by remaining a part of it or establishing a close partnership with it.
If the government fails to reach an agreement on this issue before the UK leaves the EU, the country may find itself in a position where it has to re-affirm or renegotiate trade agreements with all 27 member states.
In the meantime, the lower price of the pound against the euro and the dollar means that there may be an opportunity to make British goods and services more competitive.
While exports will benefit from the weakened pound, the opposite is true for imports and businesses reliant on the import of raw materials or components from foreign suppliers may find that their costs increase as a result.
If the UK leaves the EU without securing an agreement on a new relationship, UK trade relationships with the EU would be governed by WTO rules, under which EU member states would be obliged to charge tariffs on UK goods at the rates agreed for WTO members that do not have a preferential scheme or trade agreement in place with the EU.
If the EU were to waive those rates for the UK, it would also have to waive them for the same products for other countries.
The UK would also have to charge WTO rates on goods it imports from the EU. However, it could waive tariffs on imports from the EU, but would also be obliged to waive the same tariffs for products for all countries in the world with which it does not have a trade agreement under the WTO’s rules.
Much was promised in the run up to the referendum about businesses seeing a reduction in red-tape and bureaucracy following a vote to leave. However, many of these issues may persist after Brexit, especially if businesses wish to trade with other EU member countries.
Many of the strict guidelines will still need to be adhered to if a company wishes to sell its product into the member states. Products sold into any nation around the world must meet those countries guidelines so many of the former processes and administration will still need to take place.
If freedom of movement is curtailed then those that have non-domicile status may face issues when trying to seek advantages from living overseas.
The ability to switch residence between the UK and overseas tax havens may be hindered, although in reality not to any great extent.
Most of the UK’s Double Tax Treaties, which are extremely important to overseas investment in the UK, contain their own provisions that prohibit a country from imposing tax measures that may discriminate against a person or company from another state so these are unlikely to be affected by Brexit.
It is unclear yet what rules will be negotiated regarding freedom of movement and the continued residence of European member state residents in the UK.
However, it is unlikely that current citizens living in the UK or the rest of the EU would be forced to leave and the measures would be likely to only apply to future movement.
As the negotiations on Britain’s exit begin we may begin to see some discussion about the future of VAT, which is a Europe wide tax that is bound by the EU VAT Directive.
This set of European rules has limited the UK’s ability to set its own VAT rates and reliefs. However, post-Brexit the government may find that they are free to decide their country’s own rates of VAT and we may see a divergence from EU practices.
Many businesses will be focusing on their own business when it comes to the issues raised by Brexit, but it is important to consider how it will affect your suppliers.
If part of your supply chain is reliant on businesses that import raw materials and components from overseas then you need to be prepared for an increase in costs that may be passed on to you and your business as a result of the weaker pound.
Businesses are likely to be under stress over the next few years due to the uncertainty they are facing, the collapse or financial difficulties of a supplier are often passed up the supply chain, so it is best to prepare your business for this.
Over the last few decades the EU has provided a significant amount of funding in the form of grants and subsidies, particularly in areas such as farming and manufacturing.
During the next two years these arrangements should remain in place. However, whether all of these arrangements will be maintained once the UK is ‘independent’ is not clear. If you are unsure whether you will lose funding it may be beneficial to explore whether leaving the EU will allow the funder to terminate the agreement you hold with them.
If it does allow them to end the funding then it may be best to seek alternative finance elsewhere or adapt your plans to adjust for a decline in income.
Our general advice is to seek assistance as and when changes occur. Ensuring you have the right professional adviser on your side that understands your needs should be your first priority.
For many the best approach may be to continue on with ‘business as usual’ but with an eye on unfolding events.
We aim to regularly amend this FAQ list to keep you up to date with the latest issues affecting British businesses.